If I see you entering into a business dealing with Reuven and in fact I know Reuven is a thief, I’m allowed to and I’m obligated to tell you that fact, provided that I meet the five criteria. The first criteria we said was that I have to know factually that Reuven is a thief. I have to either have seen it myself or have to have heard it from credible witnesses that in fact Reuven is a thief.
The second requirement is I cannot exaggerate. I have to only say what I know to be true. So if in fact I know one time many years ago Reuven stole, that’s all I can say to you. I can’t categorically tell you that Reuven is a thief. I can’t tell you he’s not a trustworthy person. I can tell you what I know. What I know is that under these circumstances, in this situation, in this time period, this is what I know about Reuven.
So if I’ve seen it myself, I can tell you it directly. If I’ve heard it from others I can tell you that I don’t know it factually but this is what I heard from others. But again, I have to be very careful not to exaggerate. I can only tell you that which I know and not more.
The first criteria is that I have to know it factually to be true. And the second criteria is that I can’t exaggerate more than what I actually know to be factual.
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